Sometimes, the substantive offence may not have been completed but nevertheless an offence of a different kind has been committed because of the actions or agreements in preparation for the substantive offence. These are known as inchoate offences.
Conspiracy offences are, by nature, inchoate offences. However, there are others, including offences covering those who may have encouraged, aided or abetted others to commit an offence, such as bribery. The penalties for such offences are the same as if the main offence had been committed.
In addition, there may be specific statutory, inchoate-type offences, such as “consenting and conniving” offences. In particular, under s. 14(2) of the Bribery Act, where a bribery offence (other than the offence under section 7 of failing to prevent bribery) is proved to have been committed by a corporate with the consent or connivance of a senior officer or a person purporting to act in such capacity, the senior officer (as well as the corporate) is guilty of an offence.